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Эксплуатация зданий и сооружений | Нормативные документы

Шаги по правовому регулированию, стандартизации и нормированию в области эксплуатации зданий и сооружений делаются давно.

За это время создана масса нормативных документов – законов, постановлений, стандартов, норм и правил, часть из которых утратило силу, во многие внесены изменения, некоторые носят рекомендательный характер, выполнение других же строго обязательно.

Разобраться в этом начинающему специалисту по эксплуатации зданий и сооружений, как и отслеживать постоянные изменения и выпуск новых, сложно.

Поэтому, я решил создать цикл статей, в которых будут упорядочена вся актуальная информация по действующим законам, стандартам, нормам и правилам, в области эксплуатации, из которых вы в том числе узнаете:

— Какие есть нормативные акты

— Зачем они нужны

— Как связаны между собой

— Какие обязательны к выполнению, а какие носят рекомендательный характер

— Какие приоритетнее остальных

СТРУКТУРА НОРМАТИВНОЙ ДОКУМЕНТАЦИИ

Блок-схема ниже наглядно показывает упрощенную структуру нормативных актов, относящихся к техническому обслуживанию и эксплуатации зданий:

Структура нормативной документации по эксплуатации зданий и сооружений

Как видите, два верхних блока включают законы и подзаконные акты. Законы имеют наивысшую юридическую силу. И те и другие обязательно должны применяться, разница между ними следующая:

Нормативно-правовые акты в сфере технического обслуживания здания:

Федеральные законы — к ним относятся кодексы и технические регламенты, издаются высшими органами государственной власти и действуют на всей территории федерации, выполнение обязательно.

Подзаконные акты – принимаются на основании законов, для их исполнения, органами исполнительной власти. К ним относятся: указы президента РФ, постановления или распоряжения правительства РФ, ведомственные административно-правовые акты или же инструкции, приказы или указания, которым должны следовать все.

ОСНОВНЫЕ ТИПЫ НОРМАТИВНЫХ ДОКУМЕНТОВ

Ко следующему большому блоку, относятся документы по стандартизации, которые, согласно Федеральному закону «О стандартизации в Российской Федерации» от 29.06.2015 N 162-ФЗ включают:

  1. Нормативные документы национальной системы стандартизации (ГОСТ и РД);
  2. Общероссийские классификаторы – (классификатор специальностей по обучению специалистов по эксплуатации зданий и сооружений;)
  3. Стандарты организаций, в том числе технические условия (СТО, СТП,ТУ);
  4. Своды правил — СП;
  5. Документы по стандартизации, которые устанавливают обязательные требования в отношении объектов стандартизации.

Разработкой нормативных документов по стандартизации, обычно занимаются различные проектные, научно-исследовательские организации и просто объединения, которые обладают соответствующим практическим опытом и возможностями для создания. Также правила, перед утверждением, проходят экспертизу в создаваемых Минстроем технических комитетах (ТК) по стандартизации и техническому нормированию в строительстве.

Эти нормативные документы, делятся на обязательные и выполняемые добровольно. Но при этом все лица, так или иначе связанные с процессом эксплуатации, будь то собственники и руководители предприятий или бизнеса, назначенные ими ответственные лица, арендаторы, а главное инженеры по технической эксплуатации, обязаны знать основные применяемые стандарты и правила.

Инженерный состав отделов и служб технической эксплуатации, в своей повседневной работе, часто пользуются широким перечнем норм, правил и стандартов, не только напрямую относящихся к обслуживанию зданий и сооружений, но и общими правовыми документами, стандартами и правилами по строительству, эпидемиологическими нормами и т.д. Ведь зачастую, при проектировании и строительстве, применяются те же методики, что и при отслеживании состояния конструкций при техническом обслуживании.

И мы еще не раз обсудим это, говоря об особенностях обслуживания, обследования, ремонта тех или иных конструкций или инженерных систем объектов, сейчас же поговорим об основных нормативных документах, непосредственно регламентирующих эксплуатацию зданий и сооружений, которые нужно обязательно знать и применять.

Опубликовано в рубрикеНормативная документация

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